Appendix 1

Suggested vocabulary codes for keyboarding (multilingual) word lists (produced by David Nash and Steve Swartz).

The following codes may be used to structure a text file (created using any text editor), by clearly marking fields in a dictionary entry. Each code begins a new line. A new entry can be set off by a blank line (i.e. new paragraph, without indenting).

The codes can be used for subsequent processing by programs such as Nisus, Qued/M, Michael Hore's WordFormat, Unix sed (stream editor) or SIL's Consistent Changes (CC.COM) and ManuScripter (MS.COM). Processing may be for forming subordinate listings (abridgements, consistency checking), re-organised lists (thesaurus, indexes by gloss language), and for helping format the printed output.

CODES in the order of a typical entry:

Codes may be extended by t `tentative', or `restricted', such as:

These fields can then be excluded, if desired, from indexes or printouts.

The beginning of each file, or breaks within a file, should be identified with remarks using separate codes, such as:


\w muulpu-nyinami
\p v1i
\d be *unable to do
\d be *unsuccessful
\dv Muulpu nyina ngulaji nangka kuja ka yapa maaniyikipurda
payirninjarla yapangka walkujuku muulpu nyina, manu kuja ka yapa
maaniyikirli miyiki maninjaku jaapurlaku malirdinyanurla yitirlijuku
muulpu nyina, walkujuku.
\s rdatarr-nyinami

\w narnti-karrimi
\p v1i
\d stand *bent, as of a crooked tree or crippled person
\dv Watiya walyurukurlu kuja ka narnti karrimi, ngulanya
narntirnpariji watiya.
\c 10

\w ngarrngurr-pakarni
\p v2t
\d knock down
\dv Ngarrngurrpakarni ngulaji yangka kuja ka yapangku yapakari
kulungku karrinjakurra ngarrngurrpakarni kuja karla marlaja wantimi,
ngulanya ngarrngurrpakarniji.
\t `Ngarrngurrpakarni' is when someone person aggressively knocks
someone else standing, who because of it falls down.
\is PPJ

Appendix 2

Shareware available from the Aboriginal Studies Electronic Data Archive (ASEDA). See a recent catalogue of ASEDA for more details.

Examples of HyperCard stacks in ASEDA:

0487 Schultze-Berndt, Eva [Jaminjung/Ngaliwurru, Yirram vocabularies and games]
0499 Vallentine, Randolph J. Rook A grammar authoring system in HyperCard that allows users to write grammars linked to texts, and include digitised sound.
0508 Austin, Peter, Mantharta Grammar
0509 Austin, Peter Jiwarli Grammar Implementation of the Rook HyperCard system in a grammar of languages of the west Pilbara.
0516 Sara Flora; Hannah Brumby, Eva Schultze-Berndt; Denise Angelo; Jane Fitzroy-Browne, Introduction to Jawoyn Introduction to the spelling system, using digitised sound and drawings in a HyperCard stack.
0517 Farrell, Rosina Juya Nawu Nayijarra Hypercard stack with some digitised Mangarayi
0531 Nick Thieberger, AIATSIS dictionaries project Australia's languages: Australian indigenous languages information stacks A set of HyperCard stacks which include digitised sound, examples of words from various Australian languages, a set of comparative wordlists, and a story with grammar sketch.
0566 Katherine Regional Aboriginal Language Centre Sarah Flora, Brian Anderson, Denise AngleloSawun bla Jawoyn Langguj Introduction to the sounds of Jawoyn with digitised sounds

Appendix 3

A sample SGML encoded document.

The Standard Generalized Mark-up Language (SGML) is an international standard. It is being used by large corporations and government departments to encode their documents, and it looks like it is here to stay. With a standard mark-up language like SGML it i will be possible to create electronic documents that can be read by commercially available software. Already is possible to read a more limited mark-up language HyperText Mark-up Language (HTML) (which is how this document is marked-up) using free software like Mosaic. In time the expensive software currently used to work with SGML will become cheaper as the number of users grows.

SGML documents need to have a Document Type Declaration (DTD) which is like a grammatical statement of the structure of the file. The DTD and the document it describes can then be sent over networks and read on different computer platforms. The first seventeen lines of the following example are the DTD.

<!DOCTYPE list [
<!ELEMENT list - - (title?, id+, body) >
<!ELEMENT title - O (#PCDATA) >
<!ELEMENT id - O (#PCDATA) >
<!ELEMENT body - O (pb | entry)+ >
<!ELEMENT entry - - (form, sense) >
<!ELEMENT form - O (#PCDATA | note | LANG | illeg )* >
<!ELEMENT sense - O ( ital, eng) >
<!ELEMENT ital - O (#PCDATA | note | illeg | lang)* >
<!ELEMENT eng - O (#PCDATA | note | illeg |lang )* >
<!ELEMENT note - - (#PCDATA) >
<!-- lang marks language1 words in language2 fields -->
<!ELEMENT lang - - (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT illeg - - (#PCDATA) >

<title> Ngarla ms no.2
<id> originals viewed 29/3/93 at New Norcia. The handwritten original includes only language and Italian correspondences.
<id> ['] preceding a letter indicates (primary stress ?) e.g. &aacute; [`] preceding a letter indicates (secondary stress ?) e.g. &agrave; [~] preceding a letter indicates horizontal line over letter (typically over [r] or [rr]); [^] preceding letter indicates ^ over letter
<id> where a Ngarla word is given with alternative forms by using [or] or the Italian [o] these have been replaced throughout by a comma
<id> 644 entries.

<pb n=1>
<entry><form> B'ab'a, p'ap'a, c'amo' <sense> <ital> acqua <eng> water</entry>
<entry><form> B'aba' c'awoni, c'awoni <sense> <ital> pioggia <eng> rain</entry>
<entry><form> B'aba m'argor^o <sense> <ital> nuvole nere, piene <eng> black, heavy clouds</entry>
<entry><form> B'abat'i <sense> <ital> questa 'e una parola d'ammirazione <eng> word of admiration</entry>
<entry><form> B'accal^e <sense> <ital> giovanotto, uomo mai ammogliato <eng> young boy, unmarried man</entry>
<entry><form> Bagg'ia <sense> <ital> braccio dato, nemico <eng> arm, enemy</entry>

Further reading

Two valuable sources for language workers, both produced by the Summer Institute of Linguistics are:
NOAM: Notes on Apple Macintosh
NOC: Notes on Computing
Both are available by wriing to Box 248, Waxhaw, NC, 28173-0248, USA.

A useful source which covers the use of computers for many academic disciplines is:
Lancashire, Ian (1991)
The humanities computing yearbook 1989-90: A comprehensive guide to software and other resources. Oxford: Clarendon Press.


Antworth, E.L. (to appear) Software for doing field linguistics
Kew, P.M. and G.F. Simons (eds) (1989)
Laptop publishing for the field linguist: an approach based on Microsoft Word, Dallas, Texas: SIL.
Sutton, Peter and MichaelWalsh (1979)
Revised linguistic fieldwork manual for Australia. Canberra: AIAS.


ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange
Hard disk A large version of a floppy disk, on which data is stored in magnetic form.
interactive multimedia Computer based information which allows the user to select ways of moving through text, sound or images.
globally Global searches or changes operate over an entire document.
mark-up language A set of codes insertedinto a document to declare the structure of the document (see appendix 1 for an example).
marked-up files Files which contain codes describing the structure of the document.
RAM Random Access Memory, the memory that the computer uses to store information while the power is turned on. Some programmes load into RAM and so need more Ram to open large documents than other programmes which read documents from disk.
Go back to the contents